Photo Matthew Emmott
The castle was built in 1092 in wood on a Roman and Saxon site. Rebuilt in stone in 1157 it was repeatedly attacked by the Scots and needed regular repair including a new outer gatehouse in the 14th century. It was restored in 1541 but again it was badly damaged in the Civil War and then in 1745 in the Jacobite uprising. It was then rebuilt again in the 1820's around the large Norman keep.
English Heritage, open all year.
There are two oval towers at the southern entrance to the City, the East and West Towers known as the Citadel. These were built in the 16th century gateway and until recently both were used as Civil and Criminal Courts. They have been restored by English Heritage and the West Tower is now open.
Much of the 12th & 13th century City Wall still stand, as does the Tile Tower of the same age. Inside the city walls is the Prior's Tower, Carlisle Cathedral, which is a 15th century pele tower (see photo below). Private.